I remember when I first read the books I was intrigued by the word but I had noo idea what it meant. I figured some of you might be in that category too, so here's the prospectus for my paper, which explains what I've researched so far. It adds a lot to the books once you understand what it means.
The Jungian concepts of the anima, animus, and syzygy are recurring themes in A.S. Byatt's Frederica Potter tetrology. For my paper, I am researching the role that these ideas play in the unification of the books' several concurrent plots and characters, and in the explication of certain characters' mental illnesses. In addition, I am studying the religious and literary references made in conjunction with these concepts, such as the Manichaean religion and the works of Lewis Carroll, and how these further add to the story and conception of mental illness.
The syzygy is often mentioned explicitly in the final book, A Whistling Woman, in all three of its possible meanings. In order to understand what the syzygy referred to, however, I had to have a firm grasp on the concepts of the anima and animus. The basic theory is that since men are overtly male, their consciousness is also male, and the same for females, who possess female conscious. However, many characteristics typical of the opposite gender exist in a person in the form of an unconscious of an opposite gender; men have a female unconscious, called the anima, and women have a male unconscious, called the animus (Franz 186). Jung defined the syzygy as a joining of this unconscious male anima with the female animus, for instance when two people enter into a relationship, to obtain a pairing of opposites that signifies the joining of the conscious and unconscious. People often experience "love at first sight" when they meet a person that they feel personifies their anima/animus, and it is the phenomenon of the syzygy that causes people to feel incomplete when separated from their lover (Stevens 71). The word "syzygy" dates back to the ancient Greeks, meaning yoked or paired, and was often used to refer to the event of two cosmological bodies joining or colliding (Butler). The concept of the syzygy has also been used in a religious sense by the Manicheans and Valentinus, an Egyptian who laid the foundation for Gnostic religion.
Byatt uses different meanings of the word depending on to which character it pertains. "Syzygy" is first introduced through Paul-Zag Ottokar, a bipolar, bisexual, identical twin who is in a band called "Zag and the Syzygy Zygoats", intended by the character as a clever pun on Jung's concept. However, Byatt's motivation in associating Paul with the syzygy provokes several intriguing ideas, since the syzygy refers to two separate beings converging, and he has such a splintered personality in several regards. As an identical twin, this suggests that he could represent the anima as he is bisexual and more in touch with his feminine side, and his brother John the animus. However, the role of the anima and animus in bisexuality was disputed, and also his concept of the syzygy and more generally the Self would be complicated because he is bipolar. Another mentally-ill character (probably schizophrenic), Joshua Ramsden has Manichaean visions of his syzygy, who convinces him to aid the Manichaean struggle of light versus darkness.
However, not all of the characters associated with the syzygy are mentally ill. Frederica Potter, the main character, is the host of a TV show called "Through the Looking Glass," on which they spend an episode discussing Lewis Carroll and his syzygy imagery. This coincides with Joshua Ramsden's encounters with his syzygy, and adds both meaning and cohesion to the plot. However, I am searching for the subtler psychological and religious references that help explain Joshua Ramsden's and Paul-Zag Ottokar's illnesses and personalities. Since Jung believed that the syzygy is the joining of male and female in relationships, the concept of sexuality and the syzygy is also intriguing. Paul is bisexual while Joshua Ramsden seems asexual, having foresworn sexual relations, although another character hypothesizes that had he not he may have been open to males. In addition to questioning the role of sexuality on the syzygy, I am also questioning the importance of identical twins, from a metaphorical, psychoanalytical, and clinical psychological standpoint.
The two components of Jung's syzygy, the anima and the animus, also play important roles in the novels, although the references are subtler. As aforementioned, my central text is A.S. Byatt's Frederica Potter tetrology, which consists of The Virgin in the Garden, Still Life, Babel Tower, and A Whistling Woman. I must reread the series because I suspect that Frederica's personality and the different men she dates in each of the four books is representative of Jung's four stages of the development of the anima and animus. The men that she is most involved with portray the development of her animus, and the way she is seen by other men, as a reflection of their own animas, demonstrates the progression both of the four stages of the anima and of Frederica herself. I am certain that her first husband represents the first stage of the animus, as an embodiment of physical power. Either her sister's clergyman husband, whom she is intrigued by as a girl, or a professor she was obsessed with in college could represent the third stage of the animus as wisdom in the word, which Jung himself said was frequently manifested in professors or clergyman. In order to ascertain whether there are men representative of the other two stages of the animus and whether Frederica's maturation follows the development of the anima, I must carefully reread the series.
In addition, I must do extensive reading on the Manichaeans and the beliefs of the Egyptian Valentinus and the Gnostic religion in order to understand the implications of Joshua Ramsden's visions. I will also read Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking Glass and Oliver Sack's The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. Reading Carroll's work will allow me to comprehend the references made by Frederica and the characters on her show, both to the syzygy and the association of the Ottokar twins with Tweedledum and Tweedledee. In addition, I believe that Byatt's twins are a reference to a case study detailed by Oliver Sacks in The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. In the 1950s, he discovered of a pair of identical twins who communicated through a mathematical language; the existence of the Ottokar twins is set around the same time, and when they were children they communicated very similarly. I also intend to read more books by and on Jung to assure my full understanding of his theories on the anima, animus, and syzygy.
The amazing thing about A.S. Byatt is that it's so densely packed with information about seemingly every possible subject. As I was reading through at least 20 possible research topics popped out, and that's just from this one series. Anyway, I hope that's interesting for some of you.